Are your independent contractors classified correctly?

CA Supreme Court Adopts a New Tougher Standard

written by Rebecca gomezdownload

For the past several decades, California courts utilized the multi-factor test to determine whether or not a worker is classified as an employee or independent contractor. The multi-factor test focused on the level of control the employer retained over the worker and other factors, such as the right of employer to discharge individual, how the individual is paid, length of services, and the parties’ intent.

Last month, the California Supreme Court abandoned the multi-factor test and adopted the “ABC Test.” The “ABC Test” imposes a tougher legal standard to determine whether or not an individual is truly an independent contractor. The legal effect for this ruling places the burden on the employer to establish that a worker is not an employee by proving that the worker performs work that is “outside the usual course” of the employer’s business.

Under the “ABC Test,” an employee, generally, would be viewed by others as working in the hiring entity’s business and not for the worker’s own independent purposes. The Court explained, the term “employee” for the purpose of wage orders does NOT include workers who provide only occasional services unrelated to an organization’s primary line of business and who have their own independent business.

The “ABC Test”

Under the “ABC Test” a worker is presumed to be an employee, unless:

A. The individual is free from control and direction of the hiring entity (both by contract and in fact)

  • The individual must be free from control. If an employer dictates how or where the work gets done, or who does the work–the individual is an employee.
  • Although an employer may put a “when” on work by establishing a deadline, they should not dictate work be done on certain days or certain hours.

B. The individual performs work that is outside the usual course of the hiring entity’s business;

  • The work individual performs must not be essential to the offerings of the business.
    • Cooks and servers for restaurants perform work that are essential to the business and therefore are employees, not independent contractors.
    • Someone who is hired to design a new menu or reupholster their booths do not perform work essential to the restaurant business, therefore can be classified as independent contractors.

C. Individual engages in an independently established trade, occupation, or business.

  • Is the worker in business for themselves doing the kind of work that the organization has hired them?
  • The focus of this element is whether the individual made money from other sources, besides the employer, doing the same kind of work they offered to the employer.
    • The more evidence indicating the individual has an established business, the stronger the argument for an independent contractor

All three parts must be satisfied in order to properly classify an individual as an independent contractor. If the employer cannot establish any one factor, the individual is an employee for wage purposes.

Below are some examples of True Independent Contractors:

  • Independent Plumbers
  • Independent Electricians
  • Independent Accountants
  • Sole Practitioner Attorneys

What should your organization do?

Since the new standard is case law, coming from the court not legislature, the standard takes effect immediately. Your organizations should mitigate your liability, with assistance from your attorney, by analyzing the individuals currently classified as independent contractors and apply the ABC Test. If the individual fails one or more of the factors, reclassify them as an employee. Work with your attorney to assist with implementing the classification transition and help minimize potential legal exposure.

Insurance Policies generally do not cover independent contractors. It is best practice to request your independent contractors to provide you with a certificate of insurance and adding your organization as an additional insured. To help mitigate gaps in insurance coverage, your attorney should review your insurance policies.

Let us know if you have any questions or would like us to provide you with an insurance quote. We are here to help.

Do NOT Make This Safety Program Mistake!

training-3185170__340written by Rebecca Gomez

Having an effective safety program is crucial for creating a safe work environment and keeping workers’ compensation premiums low. Some employers have used a reward system (reward employees when there are no work-related accidents) as motivation to create a safe work environment. This can be a costly mistake. A reward system actually does the opposite. The reward system discourages employees from reporting injuries, which exposes your organization to liability and increases the cost and chances of repeated injuries.

There are other simpler and better methods to motivate your employees to create a safe work environment. The most effective way is to keep the topic of safety at the front and center and continually discuss safety to instill this culture in your work environment.

Here are some tips you many use to remind your employees to be mindful of safety:

  • Monthly or quarterly newsletters: Have each newsletter contain an article on a specific safety or wellness topic, and include a reminder of important company safety policies and emergency contacts.
  • Promote Employee’s involvement: It is important to make employees feel comfortable bringing concerns to their managers and it is important for the employees to feel confident that their concern will be addressed and taken seriously. Provide employees with a form on which they can document and report safety concerns.
  • Safety trainings: offer monthly trainings discussing safety or wellness. Be creative and get employees engaged. Promote employee involvement by asking various employees to assist in facilitating the trainings. Attendance to safety trainings should be mandatory

These are just a few ways to create a safe work environment without incentivizing employees to hide their injuries. A safer workplace can be established by continually discussing safety at every step, reviewing safety manual, and promote employee involvement.

Baker Romero provides our clients with free safety videos, articles, and brochures tailored to their industry and loss control/claims review.

Let us know if you have any questions regarding risk management or would like us to provide a quote for workers’ compensation. We are here to help.

Risk Management: Non-Owned Auto

images4SOYEVQF

It is common for nonprofit organizations to have their employees or volunteers drive their personal autos for business-related purposes. This however provides the organization with additional liability exposures. In the event your employee or volunteer is in a car accident while using their personal auto on your behalf, your organization can be held liable. Although California law requires employees to carry personal auto insurance, the injured party can pursue a claim against your organization.

Below are some risk management tips if your employees or volunteers use their personal vehicles on your organization’s behalf:

  • Written driver policy signed by the individual driver
  • Obtain a copy of employee’s current driver’s license.
  • Require proof of personal auto coverage and get updated copies at policy renewal.
  • Run annual motor vehicle record check or use the California DMV pull program
  • Purchase a non-owned auto policy for your organization.

If your employees or volunteers drive their personal vehicles on your organization’s behalf, you should consider purchasing a non-owned auto policy. Non-owned auto coverage can be added to your business package policy, business auto policy, or purchased as a standalone policy. Non-owned auto coverage applies when the damages exceeds the limits of the employees’ personal auto insurance or where their personal auto carrier denies the claim. A non-owned auto policy will provide liability coverage for your organization.

Let us know if you have any questions regarding non-owned auto liability or would us to provide a quote. We are here to help.

This is intended for informational purposes only and not to be construed as legal advice.

Are You Ready for the New Year?

Be Prepared or it Can Cost You! 

contract-2779509__340

 

 

 

 

 

 

As the New Year begins, it is important for every organization to review their risk management procedures by addressing any weaknesses to prevent potential accidents that lead to costly claims. One risk management tool to assist in mitigating the costs of claims arising out of your organization’s operations is to have adequate insurance coverage in place. Without proper insurance coverage, one lawsuit or a catastrophic loss can close down your operations.

While there are numerous insurance coverages available in the marketplace, the following are basic coverages that every organization should consider:

  • Commercial Property Insurance covers your building, personal property, and equipment in the event of a fire, theft, storm, and other perils outlined in the policy. Consider adding Business Interruption and Equipment breakdown coverages to the property policy. Make sure that you insure your buildings and personal property/equipment to reflect the replacement cost value [cost to restore or replace damaged property without deduction for depreciation]. The failure of adequately insuring your property (at least 80%) can result in a co- insurance penalty. Co-Insurance penalty reduces the amount of recovery that you may expect to recover if you under report the value of your Consider purchasing flood and earthquake insurance, since most property policies exclude damage or losses resulting from earthquake and flood.
  • General Liability Insurance provides coverage for liability claims from a third party (such as a client, vendor, visitor, etc.) for Bodily Injury and Property damage due to negligence. Most General Liability policies include liability coverage for Products/Completed Operations and Personal Injury (i.e. slander or libel).
  • Volunteer-Accident Insurance covers individuals who donates their work to your organization without pay. Coverage is triggered when those individuals are injured while performing duties related to the conduct of your business.
  • Workers’ Compensation covers the medical treatments, disability, and death benefits of employees who are injured or killed during the course of employment. In California, employers must carry worker’s compensation if they hire employees. It is imperative that every organization ensures their work environment is safe as claims history is one of the factors that determines
    Directors & Officers Liability and Employment Practice Liability Coverage: Coverage for Directors and Officers liability can be stand alone or coupled with other coverages such as Employment Practice Liability. It is important to read the policies terms, conditions, and exclusions of your policy and review the coverage with your attorney. It is also important to check if your policy’s defense limits is inside or outside the liability
    1. Directors & Officers Liability- the Board of Directors is ultimately responsible for the nonprofit organization. It is therefore important that they are informed of their legal liability, risk management program, and the organization’s insurance coverages. Directors and officers liability protects the individuals who serve on an organization’s board of directors against claims brought by employees, vendors, or other parties for alleged “wrongful acts” in the management of the organization. There is no standard coverage policy form. Therefore, it is important to read the terms, conditions, and exclusions of the policy. For example, the definition of “insured” differs among insurance
    2. Employment Practices Liability – Employment Practice Liability protects the organization against claims made by employees alleging discrimination, wrongful termination, harassment, and employment related issues. Most carriers do not insure Wage and Hour claims in California but some may offer a defense sublimit for wage and hour
  • Umbrella policy’s purpose is to protect your organization against a catastrophic liability loss. The Umbrella policy is a form of liability coverage protecting the policyholder for claims in excess of the limits of the primary General Liability, Automobile, or Workers’ Compensation. Umbrella policies may also include a few other liability coverages, such as: Professional Liability, Employee Benefits Liability and Abuse & Molestation.
  • Crime (Fidelity Bond) Insurance provides a source for recovery of funds embezzled by employees or volunteers. If your CPA or Bookkeeper is an independent contractor, make sure they provide you with proof of their insurance (General Liability, Professional Liability, Bond, and Workers compensation policies). If they do not carry their own insurance, discuss this exposure with your attorney, as most crime policies will not insure the acts of independent
  • Professional Liability Insurance coverage that indemnifies the insured for third-party liability claims due to negligence in the performance of professional services. Professionals include Doctors, Lawyers, Therapists, Social Workers, Engineers, etc. The Professional Liability coverage can be purchased as a separate policy or included under a General Liability policy form. However, most standalone professional liability policies are written on a claim made policy form. Therefore, be aware of the retroactive date listed on the policy.
  • Abuse and Molestation Coverage can be critical for social service organizations, especially those who work with children and vulnerable adults. There are no “standard” coverage form and before purchasing coverage make sure to read the terms, conditions, and exclusions carefully. Make sure to screen and supervise prospective employees and volunteers and review with your attorney to make sure your organization carries the adequate limits to protect your
  • Cyber Insurance is a special form of commercial insurance created to protect businesses against cyber (internet) risks, such as hackers and other breaches of computer system security. Also, check other insurance policies (such as General Liability and Directors & Officers) to determine if those policies carry cyber coverage, before purchasing a cyber policy. Claims resulting from cyber losses are on the rise and it is imperative to ensure that your organization has the proper controls in place to protect your data from a Most cyber policies are written on a claims-made basis, it is important to be aware of the retroactive date listed on the policy.
  • Automobile Liability covers organizations who use vehicles as part of their Company vehicles should be insured under a comprehensive commercial liability with limits high enough to protect the organization. If employees use personal vehicles for business, organizations should add hired and non-owned auto liability coverage to protect the business in the event the employee is in an accident.
Start the New Year off right by reviewing your risk management procedures. It is important that you review your current insurance coverages with your broker and attorney. Also, make sure your organization is in compliance by having your broker and attorney review your contracts.

Baker Romero offers an annual review of coverages as well as risk management and loss control services. Let us know if you have any questions regarding any of the coverages listed above or would like us to provide a quote. We are here to help and we wish you a happy and prosperous New Year.

**This article is intended only for informational purposes and not to be construed as legal advice.

Back to Basics: Workers Compensation Premium Calculation

Picture1

Did you ever wonder how workers’ compensation is calculated and why premiums fluctuate even though your payroll is consistent?

Most administrators know that workers’ compensation premium is based primarily on estimated annual payroll.  However, many times, we receive concerns from our clients who were billed an additional premium at audit. Many times this additional premium is due to improper payroll reporting during the workers’ compensation renewal. It is important to be as accurate as possible when submitting your workers’ compensation renewal information or the carrier will bill your organization with an additional premium at audit.

The following is a quick review of payroll calculation. Payroll includes, but is not limited to the following:

  • Hourly and Salaried payroll
  • Bonus
  • Holiday Pay
  • Sick Pay
  • Vacation Pay
  • Commissions
  • Piece Work
  • Market Value of Gifts
  • Profit Sharing
  • Meals and Housing For Employees
  • Allowances for Hand Tools
  • Expense Allowances not based on receipts
  • Deferred Compensation Plans

Not included in the workers compensation payroll:  Tips, Overtime Excess, Severance Pay, Expense Reimbursement based on Receipts and third-party sick pay

Another area that is critical to managing your premium has to do with Independent Contractors. To avoid this premium charge, 1099’s should provide your organization with proof of their workers compensation insurance (at the very minimum). If the 1099 does not carry workers compensation insurance, the insurance carrier may considered them as employees for premium audit purposes and will charge a corresponding premium. Determination is made on a case-by-case basis.

Having accurate payroll information and documentation will go a long way toward streamlining payroll reporting and premium. If you have any questions, call us. We are here to help.

Risk Management Basics: Preventing Slips, Trips, and falls

Written By: Rebecca Gomez

images

One of the most common incidents that nonprofits face are slips, trips, and falls. These claims can be costly for many nonprofits and implementing an effective slip and fall incident prevention method will help prevent future claims and keep insurance premiums low. Your organization should establish a risk management policy that focuses on both prevention and procedures in the event an injury occurs. Some good practices include documenting the incident, collecting witness statements and any video surveillance (if possible). These practices can make a huge difference in defending your organization from fraudulent claims as well.

A basic “walk through” of your premises to find potential problems should be implemented daily. Below are a few tips to include in an effective slip, trip, and fall prevention risk management program:

  • Conduct a daily facility safety survey to look for common problems such as wet or greasy floors, loose mats, torn carpeting, bad lighting, clutter, cables or wires and uneven surfaces.
  • Immediately attend to any problems by putting up warning signs and/or closing an area off and taking steps to eliminate the hazard.
  • Maintain all floors and walkways on a consistent basis, using the recommended cleaning products and methods. Fix all uneven surfaces if possible by recoating or leveling the floor. You should mark or illuminate areas that cannot easily be leveled.
  • Train your employees and volunteers in slip and fall safety, and establish guidelines on how they should report problems and respond to customer injuries or hazardous situations
  • Make sure you have secure handrails for all stairs and balconies.
  • Take care of your outdoor areas, including sidewalks and parking lots. Potholes, snow and ice all create potential problems.
  • Additional or dry replacement entrance mats should be available on site during wet weather.
  • Document all of your efforts by keeping records of your daily safety inspections and any maintenance work to improve walking and working surfaces.

Best practice is to have a written policy in place and to train managers, employees, and volunteers on all safety procedures. Safety is everyone’s business!

Your organization should also have a written incident report form to document any such events. It is every employer’s responsibility to provide a safe environment. Be sure you are doing all that you can to recognize and reduce the risk. Slips, trips, and falls have the potential to be a major cause of injury for your employees, volunteers, vendors, and visitors. Be Prepared.

Let us know if you have any questions or would like more information. We are here to help.

Back to Basics: The Importance of the IIPP

by: Rebecca Gomez

 

calosha

In California, organizations with at least one employee are required to have a written Injury and Illness Prevention Program (IIPP) that is easily accessible for employees to read. An IIPP is a safety program that requires employers to develop and implement an effective program that improves safety in the workplace. In order for the IIPP to be effective, all employees, supervisors, and management need to be actively involved.  Cal/OSHA requires eight elements to be written in the IIPP and implemented in the workplace (with a few exceptions).

  1. Responsibility (The position/person who is in charge of implementing the IIPP)
  2. Compliance
  3. Communication
  4. Hazard Assessment
  5. Accident/Exposure Investigation
  6. Hazard Correction
  7. Training and Instruction
  8. Recordkeeping

Above are the minimum components required for an IIPP to be acceptable to Cal/OSHA standards. Everything in the IIPP must be implemented and documented to avoid a fine from the Cal/OSHA inspector. If your organization adds additional safety procedures to the IIPP, make sure those procedures are properly implemented with proper documentation.

There are a few exceptions to the IIPP requirements. One exception is as follows:

If your organization has 20 employees or less in a calendar year, whose industry is not on a high hazard list, and has an experience modification rating of 1.1% or less, your organization qualifies for the limited requirements of the IIPP:

  1. Identity of those whose authority and responsibility to implement the IIPP
  2. The schedule of periodic inspections to identify unsafe conditions and work practices
  3. Training provided to employees.

Cal/OSHA provides a sample IIPP program (see attached). Anything that is written in the IIPP must be implemented and have supporting documentation. Administrators need to make sure that employees know who the IIPP administrator (the authority) and who has the responsibility for implementing the procedures in the IIPP (This is usually one of the first questions a Cal/Osha inspector will ask an employee during an inspection). If your organization identifies a specific individual’s name, instead of a position title, make sure to update the IIPP if another individual replaces that position.  It is important to update your IIPP at least once a year.

The IIPP, while statutory, can support an organization’s safety culture. The IIPP enforces the importance of safety in the workplace. A safe work environment can help prevent workplace injury claims and lower your organization’s workers’ compensation premium. Please let us know if you have any questions or concerns regarding workers’ compensation or the IIPP. We are here to help.

Developing a Safety Culture

by Rebecca Gomez

f6970af0d4bdbc30584ad4e377952087

At Baker Romero, we encourage our clients to focus on the importance of developing a safety culture in the work environment. Administrators should find ways to motivate employees to practice safe work practices. An effective safety culture can help lower the amount of claims and minimize the cost of a claim as both affect the x-mod and the workers’ compensation premium.

This past year, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) enacted a new regulation that prohibits employers from implementing injury based incentive programs. OSHA considers this type of incentive program as retaliatory, which can discourage employees from reporting injuries.  Having rewards based on injury free days is an example of the prohibited safety incentive program. When employees refrain from reporting a claim after an injury, another issue to consider is the adverse impact it can have on a claims report. The cost of the claim significantly increase when employees do not report injuries.

However, OSHA did not prohibit the use of incentive programs altogether. Employers should develop a safety program that encourages safe work habits and implement an effective return to work process.  Recognizing employees for safe work habits such as completing training and using safe work procedures can create a proactive safety culture. Also, consider incorporating safety measures into performance appraisals. The performance appraisal demonstrates the importance of a company’s commitment to safety.

In the final analysis, developing a strong safety culture by encouraging safe work habits can be more effective. Administrators should create innovative ways to encourage and recognize safe work habits that encourage employees to be safe on a daily basis.

As a service to our clients, our agency provides safety videos tailored to their organization to help them promote safe work habits.  Please contact us for information regarding the safety videos or if you would a quote for workers’ compensation coverage. We are here to help

January Newsletter

Workers’ Compensation and the Experience Rating Modification (“X-Mod”)

Experience rating, authorized under the State Insurance Code, is a statistical procedure, which tailors premiums of qualifying employers to fit their organization’s loss (claims) experience.

How Does the System Work?

If your company’s premium is large enough to meet the system’s eligibility requirements, it is assigned an annual experience modification. Eighty percent of the state’s workers are subject to experience rating.

The experience modification (‘x-mod’) is generated by the workers’ compensation Insurance Rating Bureau of California, a nonprofit association of more than 400 workers compensation companies. The bureau is licensed by the Insurance Commission to collect data about injured workers’ claims. The Bureau uses this data to develop workers’ compensation rates and pricing regulations, which are recommended to the Insurance Commissioner for adoption.

An Important part of the Bureau’s duties is determining your organization’s qualifications for an experience modification (‘x-mod’).

Experience Rating Compares Organizations that Have Similar Risks (Exposures)

By comparing your organization’s payroll and claims history with other businesses assigned to the same industry classification, experience rating can determine if your organization’s claims are greater or less than what is expected from an organization in a similar industry.

The Bureau uses this statistical comparison to assign your organization its experience modification. The “x-mod” is a percentage factor, which is applied to your premium. It is used to either increase or decrease the amount of premium your organization pays to your insurance company.

How Workers’ Compensation is Priced

The premium for workers’ compensation insurance is based on a minimum rate that is established by the insurance commissioner.

The manual rates are based on a comparison of past payroll and losses of all of the businesses in a given classification. The rate projects the average cost of paying benefits for all businesses assigned to the classification, per $100 of payroll. If the rating system went no further than manual rating, the loss history or experience rating would not be recognized in determining the premium.

Experience rating, however, refines manual rates by comparing a company’s loss experience to other businesses assigned to the same classification and adjusts the company’s premiums to reflect its actual experience.

If you have any questions regarding workers’ compensation insurance, please let us know, we are here to help.

*This article is intended to be used for informational purposes only and not to be construed as legal advice.

December Newsletter

Back to Basics: Directors and Officers Liability and Employment Practice Liability Risk Management Tips.

Directors and Officers Liability Insurance, also known as D&O, covers individuals who serve on the boards of nonprofit organizations. Individuals who serve in such areas can be held legally liable for activities that arise from the activities of the organization or the financial claims which result from their decisions. Generally, board members are responsible for the governance of the organization and can be held personally liable for decisions that fail to meet their responsibilities. D&O can be considered one of the most important coverage a nonprofit carries because it insures current and past board members and is often a requirement for potential new board members.

There are no standard policy forms for D&O coverage. Each insurer writes their own form and can have substantial differences among insurance carriers (insurers). When looking at the policy, nonprofit organizations should read the form carefully so that the scope of insurance is understood. For example, most insurers use a claims-made trigger, which insures claims that are initiated during the policy period (date of claim determines coverage not date of act), while some insure claims arising out of activities during the policy period. A nonprofit should also examine the definitions of keywords that are listed in the policy to understand the scope of coverage. For example, “insured” and “insured individuals” usually includes the board members (past, present, and future),  but some carriers also include committee members, spouses, volunteers, and legal representatives.

Many insurance carriers that write D&O for nonprofits will also include Employment Practice Liability (EPLI). The most common types of Employment Practice Liability claims are the following: sexual harassment, racial and gender discrimination, defamation, failure to accommodate, and improper employee classification. Claims for improper employee classification has been on the rise. Some carriers will provide defense for improper employee classification but back pay or penalties owed to the employee are not covered by any D&O policy form (wage and hour issues).

Board Members and Nonprofits should consider the following to help protect themselves against Employment Practices Liability claims:

  • Make sure that Employee handbooks are in compliance with the law and that the company strictly adheres to the policies stated in the handbook.
  • Open communication with employees and make sure that all supervisors are adequately trained
  • Adopt anti-discrimination and anti-harassment policies and make sure that employees understand that such behavior will not be tolerated.
    • If there is a complaint, make sure the organization does a thorough investigation promptly and takes the appropriate action.
  • Be sure that employees are classified correctly
    • Exempt vs. Nonexempt
    • Independent contractors

This is not an exhaustive list of what board members and Nonprofit administrators should consider in regards to risk management. Consult with your HR representative and/or Employment attorney to check if handbooks are in compliance and if there are other risks that the organization needs to address.

If you have questions regarding Directors and Officers Liability or would like a quote, please contact us. We are here to help.

*This is article is for informational purposes and not to be construed as legal advice.


Tips to Reduce Holiday Party Liability for Employers

With the holidays approaching, attention is now turning to celebrating with family, friends, and coworkers at the company holiday party. Many organizations are in the process of planning the festivities and various liability issues need to be addressed when organizing a party. Incidents are more likely to occur if alcohol is involved. Employers should be concerned with the possible repercussions from intoxicated guests. For example, liability can incur from the following: drunk driving accidents, underage drinking, discrimination claims, premises to liability, workers’ compensation (for falls), and injury to third parties.

Below are some guidelines organizations should consider for planning and managing company holiday parties:

  1. If hiring a third party vendor, verify that they are licensed, bonded, and insured (regardless of function). Request a certificate of insurance and make sure that they have adequate coverage. Ask your attorney or broker what coverage that vendors and your organization need to be sure that there is adequate coverage.
  2. Contract- after hiring the third party vender, obtain a signed contract that will outline the functions and services the vendor will provide. Make sure that the contract is as specific as possible to the event, verify there is a hold-harmless clause (in the event of a vendor-related injury), and have your attorney review the contract before signing.
  3. Serving alcohol- If your organization plans on having alcohol served at your company party, be sure to hire a bartending service that insures its employees against liquor- related liabilities. The bartending-service staff will pose specific liability risks, so it is important that only the bartender service handle drinks and check IDs. Hosts should never pour or mix alcohol, this can increase personal liability risk. If there is a guest who appears to be intoxicated, be sure that they are cut off and that they do not drive themselves home. Hosts should consider appointing a trusted party attendee to help monitor the guest’s alcohol consumption as the host will have to pay attention to other activities.
  4. Be sure that walkways and paths are accessible and clear, to prevent slips, trips, and falls. Walkways should be lighted and signs should be posted to notify guests to watch their step.

These are just a few tips to consider to ensure that the party is safe and fun for the guests involved. Be sure to check with your attorney for any contracts or liability concerns. Also, check with your insurance broker for special events liability coverage. If you have any questions, or would like a special events quote, please contact us we are here to help.

We hope that everyone has a safe and happy holiday!

*This article is intended for informational purposes only and not to be construed as legal advice.